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Lab Test

Neutrophil Burst Oxidase Assay (CGD screening)

The Neutrophil Burst Oxidase Assay, also known as the Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) test, is a diagnostic tool used to screen for Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a rare, inherited immune system disorder. CGD is characterized by a defective neutrophil burst oxidase system in the immune cells, particularly the neutrophils, leading to their reduced capacity to kill invading bacteria and fungi.

  • Profile Name: Neutrophil Burst Oxidase Assay (CGD screening)
  • Sample Type: Blood
  • Preparations Required: No specific instructions. Regular diet and activities can be continued unless specified by your healthcare provider.
  • Report Time: 2 Days

The test works by measuring the oxidative burst, or the production of reactive oxygen species, in neutrophils after they are stimulated. In a healthy individual, neutrophils will show a significant increase in fluorescence after stimulation, indicating a functional oxidase system. However, in CGD, this burst is severely reduced or absent, indicating a defective oxidase system.

Understanding this process is essential in diagnosing CGD early, thereby enabling appropriate treatment and management of the condition. This, in turn, helps to prevent severe or recurrent infections that individuals with CGD are typically prone to.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The Neutrophil Burst Oxidase Assay is used to screen for Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a condition in which immune cells, especially neutrophils, are unable to effectively fight off bacteria and fungi due to a defect in the burst oxidase system.

A blood sample is taken, and the neutrophils within the blood are then stimulated. The amount of oxidative burst, or the production of reactive oxygen species, is then measured. In healthy individuals, this burst will be significant, but in those with CGD, it will be reduced or absent.

No special preparations are necessary for this test. You can continue with your regular diet and daily activities unless your healthcare provider instructs otherwise.

A positive result, indicating a reduced or absent oxidative burst, suggests the presence of Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Your healthcare provider will guide you on the next steps, which usually involve additional tests to confirm the diagnosis and plan treatment.

A negative result indicates a normal oxidative burst, suggesting that the individual does not have CGD.

Yes, this test can be performed in children, especially if there's a family history of CGD, or if the child has recurrent or severe infections.

The test is generally safe, with minimal risks associated with the blood draw procedure, such as minor pain, bruising, or infection at the injection site.

The Neutrophil Burst Oxidase Assay is considered highly sensitive and specific for detecting CGD. However, your doctor will interpret the results in the context of your symptoms and medical history.

Certain medications, recent infections, or other immune disorders may potentially affect the results of this test. It's essential to discuss your full medical history and current medications with your healthcare provider.

If you're diagnosed with CGD, the treatment focuses on managing symptoms, preventing infections, and boosting the immune system's function. This can include antibiotics or antifungal medications, interferon-gamma therapy, and in severe cases, a bone marrow transplant. Lifestyle changes like practicing good hygiene and avoiding certain environments can also help prevent infections.

No, this test requires a blood sample to be drawn by a healthcare professional and the analysis is performed in a specialized laboratory.

The frequency of this test depends on the clinical scenario. It is primarily used for screening when CGD is suspected.

If the test is positive, further confirmatory tests such as genetic testing may be ordered to identify the specific gene mutation causing CGD.

Coverage for this test will depend on your insurance plan. It is recommended to check with your insurance provider for detailed information regarding coverage.

Preventive measures such as taking prophylactic antibiotics, practicing good hygiene, avoiding exposure to certain environments or substances known to cause infections, and receiving regular medical care can help reduce the risk of infections in individuals with CGD.

The prognosis for someone with CGD can vary widely, depending on factors like the specific type of CGD, the severity of the disorder, the patient's overall health, and how well the condition responds to treatment. With appropriate management, individuals with CGD can lead active, healthy lives.

Yes, lifestyle changes can play a critical role in managing CGD. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, good sleep, and stress management can all help to strengthen the immune system and improve overall health.

There's currently no cure for CGD, but the condition can be managed effectively with medications, lifestyle adjustments, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.

Yes, like all treatments, those for CGD also come with potential side effects. These will depend on the specific treatments used. For instance, antibiotics can cause digestive problems, while bone marrow transplants come with more severe risks, like infection and graft-versus-host disease.

Yes, with proper management and regular follow-ups with their healthcare provider, someone with CGD can lead a normal, productive life. Some modifications might be necessary to avoid exposure to certain infections.

CGD is usually inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, which means the mutated gene causing the condition is located on the X chromosome. It is most often males who are affected.

While it's less common, CGD can occur in females. Typically, females are carriers of the condition, but they can also be affected, especially if they have a defect in both copies of their X chromosome.

Gene therapy is being studied as a potential treatment for CGD. This approach involves introducing a normal copy of the defective gene into the patient's cells. While promising, this research is still in its early stages and not yet widely available.

If you suspect you or your child may have CGD, particularly if there's a family history of the condition or recurrent severe infections, you should consult a healthcare provider. They can guide you on the necessary tests and treatments.

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