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IHC - PIN 4 | Test | Sprint Diagnostic

The PIN-4 Immunohistochemistry (IHC) test is a diagnostic procedure performed on tissue samples. It represents a novel approach to diagnosing prostatic diseases, harnessing the power of a cocktail of antibodies designed to differentiate various conditions. The name PIN-4 comes from the use of this test in the diagnosis of Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN), a precursor to prostate cancer.

In PIN, prostate gland cells start to look abnormal under a microscope, but they don't appear to be growing into other parts of the prostate (which would mark the transition to cancer). The PIN-4 IHC test plays an important role in identifying these abnormalities and helping physicians decide on the appropriate course of treatment. The test uses three antibodies (P63, HMWK, and AMACR) to help in the diagnosis.

The primary benefit of the PIN-4 IHC test is its ability to help differentiate PIN from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer itself. This distinction is crucial in guiding treatment decisions and can significantly influence patient outcomes.

The role of the three proteins in the test, P63, HMWK, and AMACR, can't be understated. Each plays a crucial role in maintaining prostate health, and alterations in their expressions are closely linked to prostate diseases. Therefore, their combined detection provides a comprehensive view of the health status of the prostate.

  • Test Name: IHC - PIN 4
  • Sample Type: Tissue
  • Preparations Required: No specific preparation is needed for this test.
  • Report Time: 3 days

Home Sample Collection Process

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Sample Collection by Phlebotomist
Sample Collection by Phlebotomist
Reporting of the sample at lab
Reporting of the sample at lab
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Download Reports
Frequently Asked Questions

The PIN-4 IHC test is a critical diagnostic tool in the fight against prostate diseases, particularly in the early detection and differentiation of Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) from benign conditions and prostate cancer. This distinction can have significant implications for treatment decisions, ultimately affecting patient outcomes. Early detection of PIN and subsequent intervention can prevent the progression to full-blown prostate cancer.

No, fasting is not required for the PIN-4 IHC test. The test is performed on tissue samples, which are typically obtained through a biopsy or surgical procedure. Therefore, dietary habits or food consumption do not affect the test results.

The PIN-4 IHC test does not require any specific preparation from the patient's side. The test utilizes a tissue sample that is usually procured during a biopsy or surgical procedure by a trained medical professional. Before undergoing a biopsy, your healthcare provider will provide you with detailed instructions based on your health history and the specific biopsy technique to be used.

This test is typically recommended when there's suspicion of prostate abnormalities. This could be prompted by various factors such as symptoms of prostate issues, an enlarged prostate observed during a physical examination, or an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level detected in a blood test. If you're experiencing symptoms like frequent urination, difficulty starting or stopping urination, or lower back pain, your doctor might suggest this test.

The PIN-4 IHC test measures the presence or absence of three specific proteins (P63, HMWK, and AMACR) in tissue samples taken from the prostate. These proteins play crucial roles in maintaining the health of the prostate, and abnormal expression of these proteins can be indicative of PIN, BPH, or prostate cancer.

The frequency of the PIN-4 IHC test is based on your doctor's advice and typically depends on the individual's risk factors for developing prostate conditions. It's generally conducted as part of the diagnostic process when prostate abnormalities are suspected or when monitoring the response to treatment for prostate conditions.

The PIN-4 IHC test does not yield numerical values. Instead, it determines whether the expressions of the P63, HMWK, and AMACR proteins in the prostate tissue sample are normal or abnormal. The presence of these proteins where they're not expected, or their absence where they're expected to be, can be indicative of various prostate conditions.

The main precautions related to the PIN-4 IHC test pertain to the tissue sample collection process. As the test is performed on tissue samples obtained through a biopsy or surgical procedure, you should follow your healthcare provider's instructions before and after the procedure. This could include guidelines about medication usage, post-procedure care, and follow-up appointments.

The expression of P63, HMWK, and AMACR — the three proteins involved in the PIN-4 IHC test — can be influenced by the presence of PIN or prostate cancer. However, these are not modifiable factors. Your genetic makeup and the development of disease are the primary factors that affect the levels of these proteins.

If your PIN-4 IHC test results are abnormal, it's advisable to consult a urologist or oncologist. These specialists are well-versed in diagnosing and managing prostate conditions and can provide insights into the implications of your results and the appropriate next steps.

In conclusion, the PIN-4 IHC test is a highly valuable tool in the early detection and management of various prostate conditions. It offers a unique approach to understanding the complexities of these conditions, ultimately guiding treatment decisions and improving patient outcomes.

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